Approach to the diagnosis of opportunistic infections of the lungs in adults with AIDS
Keywords:Opportunistic Infections, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections, Lung Diseases, Fungal, Pneumonia
The AIDS epidemic remains one of the most important public health problems of the 21st century. Delayed diagnosis of HIV infection in patients with advanced states of immunosuppression (in the absence of highly active antiretroviral treatment [HAART]) significantly increases the risk of acquiring infections classified as opportunistic. Opportunistic infections (OIs) that affect the respiratory system in patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS are a factor of high morbidity and mortality. Their usually insidious presentation, with non-specific symptoms and signs, makes their timely diagnosis and differentiation difficult. Among these, the most frequent ones affecting the respiratory system in Ecuador are: bacterial pneumonias, histoplasmosis, Pnemumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, cryptococcosis, candidiasis or mycobacterial infection. Below is an approach to the diagnosis of these diseases.