The nature of attacks by wild boar (Sus scrofa) and wild boar/domestic pig hybrids (´javaporcos´) and the conduct of anti-rabies care in Brazil
Introduction: In Brazil, the wild boar is an exotic invasive species that has been reported as a disease reservoir in several parts of the world. The result of crossing a boar with a domestic pig is called, in Brazil, a ´´javaporco´´. In Brazilian territory, boars and javaporco have been recorded serving as food sources for blood-feeding bats (Desmodus rotundus), and the impacts of such interactions on human health are still unknown. Objetive: Characterize attacks by wild boar and javaporco on human, and anti-rabies treatment that follows such accidents. Methods: Reports and epidemiological investigation records of human rabies treatment from 2007 to 2017 stored in the National System of Notifiable Diseases database were analyzed by descriptive epidemiology. Results: 309 attacks - 271 (87%) by wild boar and 38 (12.3%) by javaporco were reported - an increase in the number of reports in the most recent years of the evaluated time series. Attacks occurred in all regions of the country, in 17 Federated Units and in 252 municipalities. Men were most commonly attacked sex (283 - 91.58%), with the most commonly attacked age group being 35 to 49 years (86 - 27.83%), and occupations being wire fence constructor (31 - 10.03%), retired or pensioner (15 - 4.85 %) and student (13 - 4.20%). Single lesions (197 - 63.75%), deep (248 - 80.25%), produced by bite (292 - 94.49%), in the lower limbs (159 - 51.45) were the most recorded. Most of the individuals attacked had no history of anti-rabies treatment (249 - 80.58%), and the treatment indicated was serum plus vaccine (162 - 52.42%). Conclusion: Given the rising profile of the attacks and the geographical expansion of the wild boar's range in Brazil, with the consequent risk of attacks this study has shown, the health authorities should be alert to episodes of aggression, which should be monitored and, after incidents the medical care guidelines of the National Rabies Control Program should be followed.